Origin of Material: This standard was made using a predominantly sulphide ore sourced from the Kansanshi Mine, located in the North Western Province of Zambia. The mine is located approximately 10 kilometres north of the town of Solwezi, 180 kilometres to the northwest of the Copperbelt town of Chingola and 16 kilometres south of the Democratic Republic of Congo border. Kansanshi, Africa’s largest copper mine, is 80% owned by Kansanshi Mining PLC, a First Quantum subsidiary. The remaining 20% is owned by a subsidiary of ZCCM.
The Kansanshi deposit occurs within the Lufilian arc, a major tectonic province characterized by broadly north directed fold and thrust structures, which hosts the world class Central African Copperbelt. The deposit at Kansanshi occurs within a broad, northwest trending, north-west closing antiform, which can be traced for approximately 12 kilometres. Kansanshi is a vein deposit developed within a tectonised rock sequence and, as such, constitutes a major mineralization control. The main veins and vein swarms dip sub vertically, perpendicular to the fold axes, in the plane of maximum extension.
(for more information, refer to the following: http://www.first-quantum.com/files/doc_downloads/Kansanshi_April%20_2012-FINAL.pdf, www.first-quantum.com.)
Mineral and Chemical Composition: Deep tropical weathering has resulted in supergene enrichment and subsequent partial oxidation of the deposit. Primary copper sulphide mineralization is dominated by chalcopyrite, with very minor bornite, accompanied by relatively minor pyrite and pyrrhotite. Oxide mineralization is dominated by chrysocolla with malachite, limonite and cupriferous goethite. The mixed zone includes both oxide and primary mineralization but also carries significant chalcocite, minor native copper and tenorite. Some copper appears to be carried in clay and mica minerals, where it is essentially refractory.
Recommended Concentrations and Limits
(at two Standard Deviations)
Cu Fusion 1.013 ± 0.085 %
Cu M/ICP 1.014 ± 0.037 %
Cu P 0.997 ± 0.035 %
Cu Soluble 4081 ± 298 ppm
Co M/ICP 84 ± 9 ppm
Co P 83 ± 8 ppm
Specific Gravity 2.82 ± 0.08
Au Pb Collection 0.10 ± 0.02 g/t